What Is Folic Acid?
Whether you’re already expecting — or just planning to be — taking the right vitamins can help ensure a healthy baby.
One of the most important for you and your baby is folic acid. Up to 70 percent of all neural tube defects (NTDs) — birth defects of the brain and spine — could be prevented if every woman of childbearing age took folic acid daily, according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).
Folic acid is a member of the B-vitamin family. It occurs naturally in foods as folates, and is available in synthetic form in vitamin pills. Foods that contain folates include orange juice, green leafy vegetables, and beans. Fortified breakfast cereals, enriched grain products, and vitamins contain a synthetic form of folic acid. The synthetic form is more easily absorbed by your body than the natural form.
The Role of Folic Acid
While researchers don’t know why folic acid helps prevent birth defects, it has been shown to decrease the risk of the most common NTDs: spina bifida (the leading cause of childhood paralysis) and anencephaly (a fatal condition in which an infant is born with a severely underdeveloped brain and skull).
Not only does folic acid combat these NTDs, but it may also help keep your baby from developing a heart defect, cleft lip, or cleft palate.
Additionally, a pregnant woman needs folic acid to help support the rapid growth of the placenta and fetus. The nutrient aids in baby’s DNA production.
Cell division and fetal growth can become impaired without it. One study found that women with folic acid deficiencies were two to three times more likely to have a premature baby or a baby of low birth weight than those who got enough of the vitamin.
Boost Your Intake
The March of Dimes, the CDC, and the Institute of Medicine recommend that all women consume at least 400 micrograms of the synthetic form a day, and that pregnant women consume 600 micrograms, either from a prenatal vitamin or multivitamin, or by consuming a fortified breakfast cereal that contains 400 micrograms of folic acid in one bowl.
Foods that are rich in folates include:
- Fruits and fruit juices
- Leafy green vegetables
- Lima beans
- Sunflower seeds
- Wheat germ
In addition, some foods are fortified with folic acid that your body can absorb more easily than natural folates. Foods that may be labeled “enriched” (required to have 140 micrograms of folic acid per 100 grams of grain) include:
- Breakfast cereals
If you’ve already had a baby with an NTD, consult your doctor about how much folic acid you should take before your next pregnancy.
Studies have shown that taking a larger dose (4 milligrams) beginning at least one month before pregnancy and during the first trimester reduces the risk of having another affected pregnancy by about 70 percent.
Why do I need folic acid in pregnancy?
Folic acid helps to protect your unborn baby from developing neural tube defects such as spina bifida.
Folic acid may also help to prevent other birth defects, such as a cleft palate .
Folic acid is good for you, too, as it works with vitamin B12 to form healthy red blood cells. Not having enough folic acid can cause you to have a type of anaemia. The other, more common type of anaemia, is due to a lack of iron.
What is spina bifida?
Spina bifida happens when the protective covering that grows around an unborn baby’s spinal cord doesn’t close properly, leaving a gap. This can lead to permanent nerve damage, and sometimes paralysis.
The first 12 weeks of pregnancy is when your baby’s brain and nerve system are forming and growing fast. That’s why it’s important to take daily folic acid supplements during the first three months of your pregnancy, and ideally while you are trying for a baby.
Once you reach 13 weeks of your pregnancy (second trimester), you can stop taking the supplements if you want to, though continuing to take them won’t harm you or your baby.